• Traditional approach used for over 40 years.

  • Requirements must be defined at the start.

  • Little / no alternations.

  • Sequential - Complete 1 task and then the next.

  • Used in large scale SW development where thorough planning and predictability is required.


  • Extensive planning, this thoroughness often results in more accurate timelines and budgets.


  • Difficult to apply changes or modify / correct previous steps

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